Man as Machine – Trains Pt 14

Tarquin O’Flaherty continues his discourse on the development of the steam locomotive.

Stephenson’s behemoth, (The Rocket) nevertheless, despite its failure in the beauty contest, when asked to, merrily chugged up and down the approved course, day after day, repeatedly demonstrating its reliability, pulling power and speed.

When the Monday of the second week came, Hackworth’s ‘Sans Pareil’ was back in the fray, at least for about two hours.  The failure of a water pump ended its chances when no one could be found to repair the damage.  To add to its troubles, the judges found that the weight of the engine was outside the rules and they promptly disqualified it!

The ‘Novelty’, having been taken apart and put back together again in four days, re-entered the trial on the Wednesday.  It went around the course twice, fully loaded, before, (alas) a boiler pipe burst.  To repair this damage in the allotted time was impossible, so the ‘Novelty’ was withdrawn.

The ‘Rocket’, surrounded on all sides by hastily repaired machinery which coughed and spluttered and died repeatedly, demonstrated again and again its capacity to haul itself, fully loaded up an incline at at least twice the speed of any stationary engine.  For the duration of the trials, ‘Rocket’, without a single breakdown, covered a distance of at least 70 miles whilst fulfilling every requirement laid down by the competition.  Its performance also proved conclusively that locomotives and not stationary engines (or indeed, horses) were the only suitable form of power for the new Liverpool-Manchester line.

The shameful bias of the Mechanics’ Magazine continued…
‘…the ‘Novelty’…as soon as it is repaired…and but for the accidents it unfortunately met with…it will accomplish…the tasks assigned to it…’

The magazine then proceeds to cast aspersions on the judges;
‘…it appears that… the judges have had only the name and not the power of judges… the Directors reserving to themselves the power of deciding which is best entitled to the premium…’

This ungenerous attitude continues on for another four or five hundred words, and includes the astonishing statements that;
‘…the ‘Novelty’ is the sort of engine that will be found best adapted to the purposes of the railway…’ and that the ‘Sans Pareil’ ‘…is at least as good an engine as the  ‘Rocket…’
before it is forced to admit that the ‘Rocket’ has utterly outperformed its rivals..

Almost all of this disgraceful bias may be explained when it is understood that the ‘Mechanics’ Magazine’ was based in London and was run by professional engineers, quite a few of whom had, from time to time, felt the sharp end of George Stephenson’s tongue.  There was William James who had failed to finish his survey of the Liverpool-Manchester line and Charles Vignoles whom Stephenson had rejected as his assistant.  These two alone were easily enough to influence the magazine’s anti-Stephenson outpourings.

Happily, the world did not stop or go on the word of this petty magazine.  The results of the trials were very quickly relayed around the world and orders were arriving thick and fast at the Robert Stephenson Newcastle works.  Four locos were immediately ordered for the Liverpool line.  Oddly one anti-Stephenson member of the Liverpool board, Mr James Cropper, managed to include an order for two of the ‘Novelty’ engines.  This little triumph enraptured all at the Mechanics’ Magazine, but only for a little while.  Both engines, for reasons not immediately available to us, failed their tests and were rejected.

Hmmm…curiouser and curiouser…



“Anzackery. Is there a better term today to challenge political leaders, officials, national institutions and journalists who perpetuate the absurd proposition that nationhood emerged not amid 60,000 years of continuous Indigenous settlement or even at federation, but with 8700 Australian deaths under a British flag at Gallipoli?” writes Paul Daley in the Guardian.

Click this link to view the article

[Anzackery is the term coined by Geoffery Serle in a 1967 Meanjin article]

Man as Machine Trains – Pt 13

More on George Stephenson by Tarquin O’Flaherty

George Stephenson

George Stephenson


It is extraordinary how, in the first half of the 19th century, the reputable, and entirely respectable British engineering establishment set itself against George Stephenson.  Stephenson lacked polish.  He also had an almost impenetrable ‘Geordie’ accent and no recognised engineering qualifications whatever.  He was also inclined on occasion to behave in a less than deferential way towards respectable engineers whom he considered to be incompetents.

Stephenson unfortunately possessed one other quality which the establishment simply could neither accept or forgive; this was, of course his embarrassing habit of solving problems other engineers had dismissed as wholly intractable.  This was absolutely intolerable.  The Rainhill trials seemed the perfect opportunity to put this coarse upstart in his place.

One of the most popular and widely read journals of the day was the ‘Mechanics’ Magazine’ which was, if not the official organ of the engineering establishment, then it was closely associated with it. The reporter on the day had the following to say:
‘The engine which made the first trial was the Rocket…it is a large and strongly built engine, and went with a velocity which as long as the spectators had nothing to contrast it with, they thought surprising enough.  It drew a weight of twelve tons, nine cwt. at the rate of ten miles, four chains in an hour (just exceeding the stipulated maximum) and when the weights were detached from it, went at a speed of about 18 miles per hour. The faults… were a great inequality in its velocity and only…a partial [ability] to consume its own smoke’. 

What this reportage fails to do is honestly acknowledge that the Rocket had fulfilled every condition of the test, both loaded and unloaded, without any mishap whatever.  It is interesting and curious to note that there is an ungenerous, pinched and carping quality in this journalist’s ‘Rocket’ writing which occurs nowhere else.

By contrast, this same reporter goes into raptures of delight in his reporting on the performance of the ‘Novelty’:
‘…the great lightness of the engine…its beautiful workmanship…universal admiration…its truly marvellous performances…’
‘It was resolved to try first her speed merely…almost at once it darts off at the amazing velocity of 28 miles an hour…’

‘…It was now proposed to make a trial of the ‘Novelty’ with three times its weight attached to it; but through some inattention to the supply of water and coke, a great delay…[made it necessary to] defer the prosecution of the trial to the following day…’ 

The magazine, with barely concealed bias, is unfairly comparing an unloaded “Novelty’ ‘…darting off… ’ at 28 mph, with a fully loaded ‘Rocket’ hauling its stipulated tonnage along the set course.

The Novelty,  ‘…through some inattention to the supply of water and coke…’ could not perform the weight-pulling part of the test the next morning, or any part of that day.  In fact it did not recover ‘…its marvellous performance…’  until the following Saturday where it managed to travel for three miles before damaging one of its steam pipes and coming to a halt.  Nevertheless, despite these problems, the ‘Novelty’, simply by its appearance, was a real crowd pleaser and most of the spectators wanted it to win.  By comparison, the Rocket was a behemoth, huge, unattractive and smelly.


Poetry Sunday 28 December 2014


An Australian poem by “J. Sweeney”

When dark Joe from Alabama met a girl from La Perouse,
They agreed upon a good time in the parks and at the Zoo.
Debating love and marriage and changes war would bring,
He stole his arm around her and offered her the ring.

She said:”To fall for your desires is something I’ll never do,
To disgrace my friends and relatives around by La Perouse,
You must know the picaninnies would be brindle, black or brown,
Then our White Australia policy would surely topple down.

“We won’t accept the Chinaman or tolerate the Japs,
And if we mate with black men, won’t our policy collapse?
I’ll wed a dinkum Aussie,and to him I will be true,
And help our White Australia around by La Perouse.”

Pausing for a moment, he said: “I know what I will do,
I’ll go home to Alabama, to the sweetest girl I know,
And when the war is over, it’s there we’ll settle down,
Then your White Australia policy won’t topple to the ground.”

James Sweeney was born in the West of Ireland in 1875. He came to Australia in 1930 and was one of a few to make his living by his verse between the wars. Unlike most poets, his book ‘Original Australian Verse’ was republished and expanded several times.  He returned to Ireland at the end of the Hitler war.  Nothing else is known of him.

He wrote in the tradition of Patterson and the bush ballad.  In my opinion he did this very badly.  He was a poor versifier, maudlin and sentimental, with little to say.  He was however,  popular in his time as his work was in regular demand.  This, I think, tells us as much about his audience as it does about the man himself.
Ira Maine, Poetry Editor

MDFF 27 December 2014

Доброе утро мои друзья

A miracle

pornERECTION Get up stand up!

The “If U want porn go to Canberra” signs are back up!

I’m not against Canberra, some of my best friends are Canberrans……

This exchange of letters took place in the Alice Springs News Online (in response to an Article featuring our signs)


Porn in Canberra?
 Sir – I was puzzled to see the debate in your paper about Canberra being the capital of porn. I live here and I don’t think Canberrans are very interested in porn. We just go to work, come home and watch the news like everyone.

The ugliest stuff we have here is that some people listen to radio shock jocks from Sydney. These petrol heads have no respect for facts but spout endless rubbish about how bad the carbon tax is. We are so lucky to have a Prime Minister who is willing to tackle the difficult but vital task of moving us into the new green world economy.
Rosemary Walters
Palmerston ACT

Sir – I’m glad that Rosemary Walters took umbrage to the Yuendumu “if u want porn go to Canberra” signs. She proved the very point we tried to make.

To stereotype whole communities as being dysfunctional and infested with drunks and paedophiles, as was done with the Northern Territory Emergency Response (The Intervention) is highly offensive and unjust. To paraphrase Rosemary: ‘I live here and I don’t think Yurntumu-wardingki are very interested in porn. Before the Intervention many people here had never heard of pornography.’ Yet we’ve lived in the shadow of the ‘No Alcohol No Pornography’ signs for over three years.
Frank Baarda

From my dad’s anecdotes:
JAN.’08- When dad returned from holidays in Holland he’d usually bring back some Dutch cigars to give to his teacher Herr Hubers. One time he’d completely forgotten. Not to worry, dad was a collector, and as well as postage stamps and the then very popular ‘swap’ cards that came with certain products and you could stick in albums (sports figures, places around the world, animals, etc.) he had a collection of cigar ‘bands’. So he promptly got some cheap German cigars and replaced the bands with Dutch ones (he thinks they might have been Schimmelpennink).

The next day Herr Hubers found the cigars on his desk and thanked Marinus (on such occasions he wasn’t ‘Hollander’). Ich gehe jetzt etwas tun dasz ich nich tun sollte. Ich rauche in der klasse. Now I’ll do something I ought not to. I’ll smoke in the classroom. He then proceeded to light a cigar and smoke and appreciate it. Ahhh das könen die Hollander, zigarren machen! Ahhh, the Dutch sure know how to make cigars!  Albert Walz was in the know er stiesz mich anhe prodded me and we both savoured the joke as much as Herr Hubers savoured the ‘Dutch’ cigar.

So again I hear you ask, what has this got to do with Yuendumu?

Just as my father helped Herr Hubers believe what he wanted to believe, so bureaucrats that come to “engage” with Warlpiri communities ask leading questions and the accommodating Warlpiri tell them what they want to hear, and they go away believing what they wanted to believe.

INSURRECTION  ….nadie es mejor que nadie….. (no one is better than anybody else )….

When some Warlpiri are not in the mood to play this game, and raise voices of dissent, the bureaucrats (or politicians) suddenly become what in the Netherlands is known as Oostindisch Doof (East Indian Deaf). In Warlpiri they say Langa-pati.  ‘Langa’ is ear(s) and ‘pati’ is hard compacted soil. The end result is the same.

The Warlpiri also have the word warungka; it means both ‘deaf’ and ‘insane’


до следующего раза


а теперь хорошая песня

Man as Machine – Trains Pt. 14

George Stephenson

George Stephenson

George Stephenson a Lunatic?  Perhaps Stephenson “shot himself in the foot”. Tarquin O’Flaherty explains.

An important point here, one I should have perhaps made earlier, was that right from  the outset it was intended that this new railway would carry passengers.  This is why the committee is so concerned about speed and safety. The truth doesn’t matter here. What matters here is the public’s perception of the truth, their belief that trains will shake themselves to pieces if they travel too quickly.  They needed to be reassured on these points and George Stephenson really wasn’t helping.

George continued down this disastrous path when his technical competence was called in to question.  When asked how wide a river was, or how many arches would support  his proposed bridge over that river his answers were so vague as to provoke derision.  It is impossible to know at this distance why Stephenson went before this committee so ill-prepared.  He appeared not to know where his base line for the levels was drawn, and when a Mr William Cubitt was asked, (Cubitt had been hired to independently check the quoted levels) he was forced to say that a great deal of Stephenson’s levels were wrong.

This level of questioning went on for days, driven by the opposition’s need to destroy forever the possibility of the railway being built.  In George Stephenson they found the perfect foil.  It would appear that he had hired others to carry out some work on the levels, and it was this incompetent work that the opposition had seized on.  This work had been less than careful.  Not only that; the work had not once been checked for accuracy.

And then there was Chat Moss.  Everybody knew that Chat Moss was a four mile long bottomless swamp that had been swallowing horses and houses for centuries.  Yet Stephenson proposed ‘floating’ a railway across it by means of man-made islands.  The opposition seized on this ‘island’ notion as another indicator of Stephenson’s unhinged thinking, and they set about making him a laughing stock, a person wholly unfit to deal responsibly with the huge sums of money  this enterprise required.  Stephenson, humiliated, had no answers, at least none the committee required.  He was not a performer.  He was an engineer.  To get a bill through parliament needed sophistication. George had none and the bill was lost.  To add to his miseries the Liverpool-Manchester board was forced to sack him.  They promptly set about finding a replacement.


Man as Machine – Trains Pt. 13

Tarquin O’Flaherty continues his account of the birth of steam powered rail, in which some people accuse Stephenson of being a lunatic

By the beginning of 1825, George Stephenson had produced his completed Liverpool to Manchester survey, together with a comprehensive listing of all costs, which included engines and all rolling stock. The entire estimate came to 400,000 pounds. This was 100,000 pounds more than had been suggested in the uncompleted James survey. Despite this the committee not only accepted the figure, but almost immediately announced their intention to pursue a parliamentary bill.

On all sides, for and against, a blizzard of propaganda was launched.  Locomotive demonstrations were organised at Killingworth to show both the strength, speed and reliability of the latest Stephenson engines.  Not to be outdone, the Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company loaded horse-drawn barges at Liverpool and made the round trip to Manchester, and back again, including unloading, in 24 hours.  They had also, at last realizing the potential threat to their monopoly, reduced their fees by twenty five per cent.

For a respectable passage through parliament, the shareholders for this vast railway enterprise needed to be equally respectable.  There were nearly 350 in all.  Many of these were solid business people from Liverpool and comprised the biggest block of 164 shareholders.  Amazingly, London, rather than Manchester had an almost comparable amount with 126.  Manchester made up the numbers with 54.  This very respectable level of investment would certainly ease the passage of the bill through parliament and certainly augered well for the future of railways in general.

In the beginning local councils didn’t want locomotives belching steam and smoke in the cities. That is why most of the major stations in England’s cities, like London’s Euston and Paddington stations terminate way outside the city centres.

‘…the vilest nuisance that ever the town had experienced…’ was said of the approaching horror at a Council meeting in Liverpool.

The Liverpool Mercury was concerned about ‘…the vomiting forth of long black smoke at places of rendezvous for the engines…’

Considering how polluted and murky the atmosphere already was in the cities with their ‘…dark, satanic mills…’ I hardly think a bit more would have made much difference!

The debate on this momentous bill began in parliament in March 1825.  Naturally the opposition, using expert engineers, had been studying Stephenson’s figures and plans in minute detail for weeks.  The canal and river lobby were extremely vociferous.  They had the most to lose should the railway prove successful.  There was also the powerful landed aristocracy, some of whom had their fortunes tied up in canals and waterways which already traversed their land.  Allowing this threat to their investments to get up would be like cutting their own throats.

When the bill got to the committee stage, several hundred objections immediately demanded attention.  These objections alone, the examination of which began on the 21st of March took weeks of the committee’s time, but were finally cleared by the 31st of May.

George Stephenson was called on the 25th of April and proved a total disaster.  Advised by his own counsel not, when asked, to exaggerate speeds, carrying capacities etc for fear of frightening his conservative audience, Stephenson couldn’t help himself.  Advised to say that speeds would not be in excess of 4 mph (when he knew the trains could travel at twenty) he suggested innocently that higher speeds than 4mph might be possible.  The opposition’s counsel seized on this immediately, and promptly jacked up the ‘higher speeds’ to 12mph.  Intelligent, rational opinion of the day truly believed that a train travelling at this breakneck speed would literally disintegrate, and kill all on board.  Only madmen, people ‘fit for Bedlam’ believed this would not happen.  This made Stephenson, in some people’s eyes, a lunatic. And this was only the beginning.

Government Values

Barry Spurr, former professor of poetry at Sydney University had a role in formulating our current governments review of the school curriculum.  Chris Graham wrote in The Guardian of his influence:

“. . . Sydney University announced that its professor of poetry, Barry Spurr, had resigned from his post. I have to admit that I couldn’t give much of a bugger.

On the one hand, I do genuinely believe that Spurr has a right to earn a living. He seems to have been widely regarded as a good and effective lecturer and professor.

On the other, can you imagine how a female student, an Asian student, a Muslim student – or, God forbid, an Aboriginal student – might feel sitting in a lecture theatre listening to him wax lyrical about the power of Judeo-Christian literature?

Clearly, Spurr’s position at the University of Sydney was tenuous.

But this story has never been about Spurr’s tenure as a professor. It has always been about the “nod, nod, wink, wink” racism of people who hold positions of great power and influence over us all. Notably, Spurr has never acknowledged wrongdoing, let alone apologised.

Thus, the “real story” has always been his role as a special consultant to the Abbott government’s review of the national school curriculum.

On that front, nothing has changed.

Despite the emergence of these repugnant emails, the federal minister for education, Christopher Pyne, remains happy with the final report into the review of the National School Curriculum. Go figure.

In case you’re wondering, here’s an example from Spurr’s report of the sort of advice for which Australian taxpayers forked out thousands of dollars:

As usual, the literature of Western civilisation at large is omitted, while the specific ‘oral narrative traditions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ are singled out for mention.

And this:

The impact of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples on literature in English in Australia has been minimal and is vastly outweighed by the impact of global literature in English, and especially that from Britain, on our literary culture.

Now here’s just one of Spurr’s private views, revealed in his email correspondence.

Whereas the [Australian] curriculum has the phrase ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’ on virtually every one of its 300 pages, the Californian curriculum does not ONCE mention native Americans and has only a very slight representation of African-American literature (which, unlike Abo literature, actually exists and has some distinguished productions).

It’s only hard to reconcile the difference between the two views if you accept that Spurr was, as he asserts, playing a “whimsical linguistic game”. Of course, the full transcript of his emails reveals he wasn’t.

Like all accomplished racists and misogynists, Spurr knew that he had to tailor his bigotry for public consumption. Overt and ugly racism is for bogans (ironically a group for which Spurr holds a special disdain). But polished, slippery racism? That is for professors. And institutions.

Spurr’s attempts to entrench his bigoted views in the school curriculum – that will be taught to every child in every school in every state of the country, for at least a generation – should send a shiver down the spine of every Australian parent.

Ask yourself this question: do you really want people of this calibre influencing what your children will learn in school?

The review of the national school curriculum will always be tainted. It has been irrevocably polluted by the views of a man who believes rape is funny, who believes Aboriginal people are sub-human, who believes Asians and Muslims are fodder for mockery, and who believes that women do not occupy a place of equality in our society.

These are not Australian values, but unless the curriculum review is revisited as a matter of urgency, then we can only assume that they are Australian government values.

Poetry Sunday 21 December 2014

The Given Note
By Seamus Heaney

On the most westerly Blasket
In a dry-stone hut
He got this air out of the night.

Strange noises were heard
By others who followed, bits of a tune
Coming in on loud weather

Though nothing like melody.
He blamed their fingers and ear
As unpractised, their fiddling easy

For he had gone alone into the island
And brought back the whole thing.
The house throbbed like his full violin.

So whether he calls it spirit music
Or not, I don’t care. He took it
Out of wind off mid-Atlantic.

Still he maintains, from nowhere.
It comes off the bow gravely,
Rephrases itself into the air.

That extraordinary inventor, Nicola Tesla tells the tale of how he was out for a walk one day, when suddenly, his mind elsewhere, he understood precisely how the modern electric motor would work.  We, nowadays, attribute the motor’s invention to Tesla.  Tesla himself believed, indeed insisted, that the entire idea literally popped into his head ‘out of the ether’ and that he was merely a conduit.  This was not false modesty.  It was Tesla’s honest belief that all information, all knowledge is here, all around us and that ‘genius’, whatever it may be, is an almost accidental tapping into that knowledge.

Jaqueline Du Pre, the cellist, had the sublime capacity to subtly alter and add to a piece of music, as if Mozart or Bach were whispering in her ear.

Listen to Ella Fitzgerald or Sarah Vaughan at their best, and, their voices, interweaving with the other instruments, become an inspired part of the music itself.  This is a rare gift

Heaney’s poem deals with this condition.  Monks, a thousand or more years ago, sought inspiration living as hermits on the Blasket Islands off the west coast of Ireland.  Their ‘dry-stone huts’ are still there.

Heaney requires his violinist, in order to hear his own music, to imitate the action of the hermit, and take up residence in the Blaskets, if not literally, then in his mind.

The poet is saying too that the ‘unpractised’, the journeymen violinist, is ‘fiddling easy’, and constitutes a refusal to take on the responsibilities of his craft. Only by dedication, by taking to the Blaskets, can something miraculous be achieved

‘…For he had gone alone into the island…’  ‘..He took it out of the wind in mid-Atlantic…’

Very few of us have the courage for ‘the road less travelled’

The ‘..others who followed..’ heard ‘..nothing like melody…’.  Like the ‘Druids’ who flock to Stonehenge every year, then go back to work on Monday ….

Thank God that so much courage exists in the world.  Without it, music, art and literature would cease to exist.

Ira Maine, Poetry Editor

MDFF 20 December 2014

Amicibuona giornata,

I’ve often claimed not to be the author of the Musical Dispatches. They write themselves. So soon on the heels of the last Dispatch, let this be the Christmas edition. I simply could not ignore this little gem from Hansard:

Senator Nova Peris 26th November 2014 Senate Inquiry into the sale of TIO:

Here in Canberra we have witnessed government MPs accuse their own Prime Minister of verbal gymnastics over his claims that he has kept his promise that there would be no cuts to the ABC or SBS. It would seem that Northern Territory Chief Minister Adam Giles likes the way his mate Mr Abbott denies the truth. How is this for a quote: ‘We are not selling TIO. We are just transferring ownership.‘ That is actually what the chief minister said in response to suggestions he should not sell it. As Michael Gunner, a Territory Labor MP said yesterday, ‘Adam Giles isn’t going to the Christmas sales this year; he’s going to the Christmas transfers of ownership.’

We are quite accustomed to Transfers of Ownership here in Yuendumu.

On the coat-tails of the Intervention, ownership of “community residences” was transferred to Territory Housing (a Darwin based NT Government Agency). These houses were “given” to Yuendumu by a string of politicians. You know the sort of thing “I got you three houses, vote for me”. The money to build them came from such as ATSIC, ABTA etc. These houses were held on behalf of the community by the Yuendumu Community Government Council. They were deemed by consensus to be communally owned. I’m not denying that occasional arguments re occupancy rights erupted, but such were resolved locally without outside interference (or should I say intervention?). Rent (admittedly modest)was paid on these houses to the Yuendumu Council, which employed such as a plumber who with his Warlpiri offsider(s) would do repairs at a fraction of the cost of bringing in Alice Springs based contractors. Prompt repairs were never the norm in Yuendumu, but relying on outside contractors (as is now the case) has not sped up matters in the least. Rents have increased several fold.

Transfer of Ownership occurred when the Yuendumu Council Inc. was appropriated by the Central Desert Shire (since renamed the Democratic People’s Republic of….. no just kidding… they  changed their name to Central Desert Regional Council-CDRC). The head office of CDRC is in Alice Springs, which is not within the area covered by the CDRC. When I last checked the CDRC employed from 70-100 people at head office. I’m not sure, but it doesn’t include one Warlpiri person. In Yuendumu itself slow but  steady progress is being made to regain local “ownership” and participation in municipal functions. This process is much slower than the instant transfer of ownership that took place some years ago.

But hey! What are we complaining about? Transfer of ownership is nothing new. Transfer of ownership has been the norm throughout history and continues to be so.

Of particular relevance to the descendants of the original inhabitants of what is now Australia is the transfer of ownership that took place in 1788.

botany bayIn 1788 the Union Jack was planted at Sydney Cove.

….and he’s taken just all that I had…

…. The first cut is the deepest…

When the Iron Curtain collapsed, a massive transfer of ownership took place from the Soviet Union to the Russian Mafia.

In Australia a massive transfer of ownership took place: Huge deposits of iron ore and coal owned by the Common-wealth (get it?) are now owned by the not so common few.

(a moot point, the huge deposits of iron and coal were included in the 1788 transfer of ownership unbeknown to the then protagonists)

I won’t spoil your Christmas dinner with more examples of transfer of ownership.

If you’ve been good I wish that Santa transfers lots of ownership to you.

…this toy is for you, now you have ownership,

You can share it but only if you want to,

You have the right to say, if someone can come and play with it… ****

Arrivederci al prossimo anno.
Avere un felice Natale


**** Warlpiri children are continually told to share…. Unprompted, Warlpiri children will offer you a bite of what they’re eating…. Greed in Warlpiri society exists but is frowned upon. Greedy people are not part of Team Warlpiri!